Kleptomania: Manifestasi Klinis dan Pilihan Terapi

Yelvi Levani(1*), Aldo Dwi Prastya(2), Safira Nur Ramadhani(3)


(1) FK UMSurabaya, Surabaya
(2) FK UMSurabaya, Surabaya
(3) FK UMSurabaya, Surabaya
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Kleptomania (curi patologis) merupakan salah satu bentuk gangguan kejiawaan yang ditandai dengan mencuri berulang. Perilaku tersebut disertai dengan keinginan kuat yang sulit dikendalikan. Kleptomania dapat berhubungan dengan gangguan kejiwaan seperti depresi, kecanduan alcohol, gangguan kecemasan dan gangguan obsesif kompulsif. Kleptomania memiliki kesamaan gejala dengan adiksi seperti adanya tekanan yang kuat sebelum keinginan tersebut dicapai, penurunan keinginan segera sesaat setelah aksi dilakukan, adanya jeda waktu (jam, hari atau minggu) terhadap munculnya keinginan melakukan aksi pencurian berulang, serta terdapat perasaan senang setelah melakukan aksinya Kleptomania juga dapat berkaitan dengan perubahan mood. Kriteria diagnostik untuk kleptomania berdasarkan American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diantaranya adalah prilaku mencuri barang berulang dimana penderita tidak mampu untuk mengendalikan keinginan tersebut. Barang yang dicuri biasanya tidak diperlukan oleh pasien dan bukan untuk dijual. Terdapat beberapa alat bantu untuk penegakkan diagnosis kleptomania diantaranya adalah Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for Kleptomania (K-YBOCS) dan Kleptomania Symptom Asessment Scale (K-SAS). K-YBOSC merupakan alat ukur keparahan gejala kleptomania. Untuk terapi farmakologi diantaranya Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) merupakan golongan antidepresan yang bekerja dengan meningkatkan level serotonin di otak dan naltrexon merupakan terapi medikasi terhadap adiksi alcohol selain itu beberapa psikoterapi yang banyak dilakukan untuk penderita kleptomania adalah Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), psikoterapi kognitif, desensitisasi sistemik dan terapi aversi. Psikoterapi ini bertujuan untuk mengubah persepsi penderita terhadap tindakan mencuri dan mengalihkan minat ke hal lain.


Keywords


kleptomania; psikopatologi; adiks

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26714/magnamed.6.1.2019.31-37

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