Effectiveness of 96% Ethanol Extract of Clove Leaves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr & Perry) as an Antibacterial Agent Against Staphylococcus epidermidis And Providencia stuartii

Listiana Masyita Dewi(1*), Muhjatul Qolbi Nafi’ah(2)


(1) Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
(2) Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Background: The incidence of antibiotic resistance as a consequence of antibiotic abuse becomes a barrier in accessing effective care. The ability of bacteria to form biofilms is an internal factor that can prevent contact between bacteria and antibiotic agents, such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Providencia stuartii. The use of plant extracts as an antibiotic is thought to be a promising solution. One of the plants that can be used as an antibiotic is the clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr & Perry).

Objective: This study aims to determine the effectiveness of 96% ethanol extract of clove leaves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr & Perry) as an antibacterial agent against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Providencia struartii.

Methods: This was an experimental analytic study with a post-test only control group design method on 4 treatment groups with a concentration of 2.5%; 5%; 10%; and 20%, as well as a positive control group and a negative control group, with 6 times repetition for each germ. Data analysis used the Kruskal Wallis test and the Post Hoc Mann Whitney test.

Results: The results of the Kruskal Wallis test on the two research germs obtained p value <0.05. Post Hoc Mann Whitney test results, for the two research germs, the comparison of the data of each concentration to the negative control obtained p value <0.05.

Conclusion: 96% ethanol extract of clove leaves has been shown to act as an antibacterial agent against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Providencia stuartii, and is stronger than chloramphenicol, but weaker when compared to ciprofloxacin


Keywords


Clove Leaves; antibacteria; Staphylococcus epidermidis; Providencia stuartii

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ventola, Lee, C. 2015. The Antibiotics Resistance Crisis. Pharmacy and Therapeutics. Volume 40. No.04. April. 2015. Pp 277-83. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4378521/pdf/ptj4004277.pdf

CDC. 2019. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance. Biggest Threats and Data. 2019 Antibiotic Resistance Threats Report. https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/ biggest-threats.html

Hall, C., W., dan Mah, T-F. 2017. Molecular mechanisms of biofilm-based antibioticresistance and tolerance in pathogenic bacteria. FEMS Microbiology Reviews. Vol.41. No. 3. pp. 276-301

World Health Organization. 2018. Antimicrobial Resistance and Primary Health Care : Technical Series on Primary Health Care. World Health Organization.https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/326454.

Nguyen, Thuan, H. Park, Matthew, D. Otto, Michael. 2017. Host Response to Staphylococcus epidermidis Colonization and Infections. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcimb. 2017.00090 /full

Khatib, M. E., Tran, Q-T., Nasrallah, C., Lopes, J., Bolla, J-M., Vivaudou, M., Pages, J-M., Colletier, J-P. 2017. Providencia stuartii form biofilms and floating communities of cells that display high resistance to environmental insults. PLoSONE. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id =10.13 71/journal.pone.0174213&type=printable

Marasini, Bishnu, P., Baral, P., Aryal, P., Ghimire, Kashi, R., Neupane, S., Dahal, N., Singh, A., Ghimire, L., Shrestha, K. 2015. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Some Traditionally Used Medicinal Plants against Human Pathogenic Bacteria. BioMed Research International. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/265425.pdf

Wahyulianingsih. Handayani, Selpida. Malik, Abd. 2016. Penetapan Kadar Flavonoid Total Ekstrak Daun Cengkeh (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr & Perry). Jurnal Fitofarmaka Indonesia. Volume 3. No. 2. http://www.jurnal.farmasi.umi.ac.id/index.php/fitofarmakaindo/article/view/221

Jimoh, S., O., Arowolo, L., A., Alabi, K., A., 2017. Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Syzygium aromaticumExtract and Essential oil. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci . Volume 6. No.7. Pp : 4557-67. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kazeem_Alabi/publication/3191 04781_Phytochemical_Screening_and_Antimicrobial_Evaluation_of_Syzygium_aromaticum_Extract_and_Essential_oil/links/5a43ac02458515f6b052bfc1/Phytochemical-Screening-and-Antimicrobial-Evaluation-of-Syzyg ium-aromaticum-Extract-and-Essential-oil.pdf

da Silva, F., F., M., Monte, F., J., Q., de Lemos, T., L., G., do Nascimento, P., G., G., Costa, A., K., M., de Paiva, L., M., M. 2018. Eugenol derivatives: synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Chemistry Central Journal. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/ 10.1186%2Fs13065-018-0407-4.pdf

Yadav, M., K., Chae, S., W., Im, G., J., Chung, J., W., Song, J., J. 2015. Eugenol: A Phyto-Compound Effectiveagainst Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-SensitiveStaphylococcusaureusClinicalStrain Biofilms. PLoS ONE 10(3): e0119564. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4364371/pdf/pone.0119564.pdf

Wankhede, T., B. 2015. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the Indian clove Syzygium aromaticum L. Merr. & Perr. Int. Res. J. of Science & Engineering. Vol. 3 (4):166-172. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.735.7897&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Hosseini, M.; Jamshidi, A.; Raeisi, M.; Azizzadeh, M. 2019. The Antibacterial and Antioxidant Effects of Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and Lemon Verbena (Aloysia citriodora) Essential Oils. Journal of Human, Environment, and Health Promotion. Volume 5. No. 2. Pp 86-93. http://zums.ac.ir/jhehp/ browse.php?a_id=195&sid=1&slc_lang=en&ftxt=1

Raja, M. R. C., Srinivasan, V., Selvaraj, S., Mahapatra, S. K. 2015. Versatile and Synergistic Potential of Eugenol: A Review. Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta. Volume 6. No. 5. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b56e/d9cc32095eca979a6f79473f35c708ed9a95.pdf

Farhadi, F.,. Khameneh, B., Iranshahi, M., Iranshahy, M. 2018. Antibacterial activity of Flavonoid and Their Structure-Activity Relationship : An Update Review. Phytotheraphy Research. 2019; 33:13–40 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/ptr.6208

Othman L, Sleiman A, Abdel-Massih R.M., 2019. Antimicrobial Activity of Polyphenols and Alkaloids in Middle Eastern Plants. Front. Microbiol. 10:911. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00911/full

Manner, S., Skogman, M., Goeres, D., Vuorela, P., Fallarero, A. 2013. Systematic Exploration of Natural and Synthetic Flavonoids for the Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 14(10), 19434-19451 https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/10/19434

Büttner, H., Mack, D., Rohde, H. 2015. Structural basis of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation: mechanisms and molecular interactions. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/ fcimb.2015.00014/full

Wie, Seong-Hoen. 2015. Clinical Significance of Providencia Bacteremia or Bacteriuria. Korean J Intern Med. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4351322/pdf/kjim-30-167.pdf

Kemenkes RI. 2005. Antimicrobial Resistance, Antibiotic Usage and Infection Control: A Self-Assessment Program for Indonesian hospitals. http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s18010en/s18010en.pdf


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 38 times
PDF - 9 times

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26714/magnamed.9.2.2022.139-146

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indexed by

 

      

 

Creative Commons License

MAGNA MEDIKA by APKKM is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.