Faktor Resiko yang Mempengaruhi Kejadian Stunting pada Anak Pra-Sekolah di Negara-Negara Berkembang

Rizka Adela Fatsena(1*), Dewi Rokhanawati(2), Dewi Rokhanawati(3)


(1) Fakultas Ilmu Kesehatan, Universitas ‘Aisyiyah Yogyakarta
(2) Fakultas Ilmu Kesehatan, Universitas ‘Aisyiyah Yogyakarta
(3) Fakultas Ilmu Kesehatan, Universitas ‘Aisyiyah Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Stunting mempengaruhi sepertiga anak di negara berkembang. Studi melaporkan bahwa faktor resiko stunting seperti sosial ekonomi, karakteristik ibu, karakteristik anak dan lingkungan terlibat dalam pertumbuhan dan perkembangan anak. Tujuan Literature Review untuk meninjau secara sistematis faktor resiko yang mempengaruhi kejadian stunting pada anak-anak pra-sekolah di negara-negara berkembang. Penelitian dilakukan dengan mencari artikel dari 3 database elektronik, yaitu PubMed, ProQuest, dan Science Direct, dari 2014 hingga 2020. Artikel teridentifikasi 503 artikel setelah dilakukan studi appraisal menggunakan program Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP), dan metode sintesis menggunakan modifikasi PEOS didapatkan 8 artikel untuk direview akhir. Data ditinjau menggunakan pedoman PRISMA-P. Delapan studi ditinjau dari 503 studi yang diekstraksi. Artikel melaporkan bahwa faktor sosial ekonomi, karakteristik ibu, karakteristik anak dan lingkungan menjadi faktor resiko kejadian stunting. Faktor resiko kejadian stunting dipengaruhi, antara lain semakin buruk sosial ekonomi keluarga dan lingkungan maka kejadian stunting semakin meningkat dan semakin baik karakteristik ibu dan anak maka kejadian stunting semakin sedikit.

 

Kata kunci: faktor resiko, prasekolah, stunting

 

RISK FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE STUNTING EVENTS IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

 

ABSTRACT

Stunting affects one third of children in developing countries. Studies report that stunting risk factors such as socioeconomic, maternal characteristics, child characteristics and the environment are involved in the growth and development of children. This study aims to systematically review risk factors that influence the incidence of stunting in pre-school children in developing countries. The research are conducted by searching for articles from 3 electronic databases, namely PubMed, ProQuest, and Science Direct, from 2014 to 2018. Articles were identified 503 articles after an appraisal study using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) program, and the synthesis method used modification PEOS obtained 8 articles for final review. Data were reviewed using PRISMA-P guidelines. Eight studies were reviewed from the 503 extracted studies. The article reports that socioeconomic factors, maternal characteristics, child characteristics and the environment are risk factors for stunting. Risk factors for stunting events are affected, among others, the worse the socioeconomic family and the environment, the incidence of stunting is increasing and the better the characteristics of mother and child, the fewer stunting events.

 

Keywords: preschoolers, risk factors, stunting


Keywords


faktor resiko; prasekolah; stunting

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References


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26714/jkj.8.2.2020.185-192

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