Genetika terhadap Penyakit Bipolar

Raden Ajeng Aprida Putri Kumala Ayu(1*)


(1) Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Lampung
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Gangguan mood yang paling umum adalah gangguan depresi mayor dan gangguan bipolar. Patofisiologi gangguan bipolar bersifat kompleks, multifaktorial, dan tidak sepenuhnya dipahami. Beberapa penelitian terbaru membuka wawasan dan untuk menemukan biomarker baru untuk Gangguan Bipolar. Sebaliknya, biomarker baru memfasilitasi tidak hanya diagnosis gangguan dan pemantauan efek biologis pengobatan, tetapi juga perumusan hipotesis baru tentang penyebab dan patofisiologi Gangguan Bipolar. Gangguan Bipolar ditandai oleh beberapa asosiasi antara perkembangan otak yang terganggu, neuroplastisitas, dan kronobiologi, yang disebabkan oleh: faktor genetik dan lingkungan; gangguan pada apoptosis, inflamasi imun, neurotransmitter, neurotropin, dan jalur pensinyalan kalsium; stres oksidatif dan nitrosatif; bioenergi seluler; dan transportasi membran atau vesikular. Penelitian gangguan bipolar saat ini dikaji, termasuk proses patofisiologis terkait dan biomarker kunci, yang telah dikaitkan dengan perubahan genetika. Penyakit Bipolar dinilai dapat membahayakan jiwa sehingga pengobatan yang tepat dapat berhasil jika diagnosis yang dibuat tepat dan pengobatan dimulai sejak dini. Akibatnya, upaya besar telah dilakukan. Tinjauan pustaka ini membahas peran genetika terhadap penyakit bipolar dengan cara mengidentifikasi faktor risiko genetik atau biomarker yang akan mengidentifikasi individu yang berisiko. Didapatkan hasil bahwa terdapat perubahan genetika, struktur, fungsi, fisiologi, dan neurokimia otak pada gangguan Bipolar, terutama perubahan neuroplastisitas, peradangan saraf, jalur pensinyalan intraseluler, bioenergi, stres oksidatif dan nitrosatif, apoptosis dan proteolisis, pensinyalan kalsium, dan transportasi membran atau vesikular dan diharapkan penelitian selanjutnya dapat mengembangkan potensi genetika dalam hubungannya dengan bipolar.


Keywords


bipolar; genetika; gangguan mood

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26714/jkj.9.4.2021.911-918

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