Students’ FLA and Their Perspectives on Translanguaging Practices in Indonesian EFL Classrooms

Mas’ud Madhani Sanjaya(1*), Joko Nurkamto(2), Sumardi Sumardi(3)

(1) Universitas Sebelas Maret
(2) Universitas Sebelas Maret
(3) Universitas Sebelas Maret
(*) Corresponding Author


In non-English speaking countries, some teachers found it difficult to teach the target language in monolingualism because some of the learners felt anxious about learning English as a foreign language, or called foreign language anxiety (FLA), so teachers implemented translanguaging in their EFL classes. This paper explores students’ perspectives on pedagogical translanguaging and the point of view on whether the use of translanguaging is beneficial in the English foreign language (EFL) classroom and how translanguaging helps EFL learners through their FLA. The participants of this research are four students in a junior private Islamic school in Indonesia. The methodology of this research is qualitative, while the type of research used is a case study and analysis with thematic analysis. The findings of this paper are that students get more benefits when the teacher uses translanguaging in their class because it helps them understand the learning objectives, the teacher's instructions, and gives them the confidence to follow the English language learning without fear of misinterpretation. Translanguaging can manage and negotiate students’ FLA in the EFL classroom.


Foreign language anxiety, translanguaging, translanguaging pedagogy, EFL

Full Text:



Back, M., Han, M., & Weng, S. C. A. (2020). Emotional scaffolding for emergent multilingual learners through translanguaging: Case stories. Language and Education, 34(5), 387–406.

Baker, C., & Wright, W. E. (2017). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism (6th ed.). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Barahona, M. (2020). The potential of translanguaging as a core teaching practice in an EFL context. System, 95, 102368.

Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77-101.

Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10, 221e240.

Cummins, J. (2017). Teaching for transfer in multilingual schools. In O. Garcia, A. Lin, & S. May (Eds.), Bilingual and multilingual education, encyclopedia of language and education (3rd ed., vol. 5). Springer.

Cenoz, J. (2017). Translanguaging in school context. International perspectives: An introduction. Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 16, 193e198.

Cenoz, J., & Gorter, D. (2020). Pedagogical translanguaging: An introduction. System, 92, 102269.

Cummins, J. (2007). Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms.

Dovchin, S. (2020). The psychological damages of linguistic racism and international students in Australia. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 23(7), 804–818.

Dovchin, S. (2021). Translanguaging, emotionality, and English as a second language immigrants: Mongolian background women in Australia. TESOL Quarterly.

Escamilla, K., Hopewell, S., Butvilofsky, S., Sparrow, W., Soltero-

Gonzalez, L., Ruiz-Figueroa, O., et al. (2013). Biliteracy from the start: Literacy squared in action. Philadelphia, PA: Caslon.

Fang, F., & Liu, Y. (2020). “Using all English is not always meaningful”: Stakeholders’ perspectives on the use of and attitudes towards translanguaging at a Chinese university. Lingua, 247, 1–18.

García, O., & Li, W.( (2014). Translanguaging: Language, bilingualism and education. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Goodwin, C. (1986/2009). Gestures as a resource for the organization of mutual orientation. Semiotica, 62(1–2), 29–49.

Harpalani, V. (2017). “Safe spaces” and the educational benefits of diversity. Duke Journal of Constitutional Law and Public Policy, 13(1), 117–166.

Hinds, P. J., Neeley, T. B., & Cramton, C. D. (2014). Language as a lightning rod: Power contests, emotion regulation, and subgroup dynamics in global teams. Journal of International Business Studies, 45(5), 536–561.

Hsieh, L. T. (2000). The effects of translation on English vocabulary and reading learning. In Ninth International Symposium on English Teaching, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Holdway, J., & Hitchcock, C. H. (2018). Exploring ideological becoming in professional development for teachers of multilingual learners: Perspectives on translanguaging in the classroom. Teaching and Teacher Education, 75, 60–70.

Horwitz, E. K. (1986). Preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of a foreign language anxiety scale. Tesol Quarterly, 20(3), 559-562.

Horwitz, E. (2001). Language anxiety and achievement. Annual review of applied linguistics, 21, 112-126.

Husain, K. (1995) ‘Assessing the Role of Translation as a Learning Strategy in ESL’, International Journal of Translation 1.2: 59-84.

Jones, B. (2017). Translanguaging in Bilingual Schools in Wales. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 16(4), 199–215.

Li, W. (2018). Translanguaging as a practical theory of language. Applied Linguistics, 39(1), 9–30.

MacIntyre, P. D., & Gardner, R. C. (1994). The subtle effects of language anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language. Language Learning, 44(2), 283–305.

Ollerhead, S. (2019). Teaching across semiotic modes with multilingual learners: Translanguaging in an Australian classroom. Language and Education, 33(2), 106–122.

Pennycook, A. (2020). The future of Englishes: One, many or none?. In The Routledge handbook of world Englishes (pp. 679-692). Routledge.

Seligar, H. W., & Shohamy, E. (1989). Second language research method. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sobkowiak, P. (2022). Translanguaging practices in the EFL classroom - the Polish context. Linguistics and Education, 69, 101020.

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 338 times
PDF - 112 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 English Language and Literature International Conference (ELLiC) Proceedings

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Electronic ISSN: 2579-7263
CD-ROM ISSN: 2579-7549

Published by

Jl. Kedungmundu Raya No.18 Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia
Phone: +622476740295, email: [email protected]