Dieni Amalia Zamzamy(1*)

(1) University of Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


The application of multimodal teaching and learning materials for BIPA has become increasingly more prevalent during the new normal period. As a consequence of various limitations imposed on them due to the lockdown, BIPA teachers are increasingly required by necessity to start producing multimodal teaching and learning materials so BIPA learning can still continue. It should be noted however that this sudden transition of BIPA learning from the initial direct face-to-face mode to an emergency online learning approach, has significantly affected the teachers in writing, compiling, and authoring multimodal materials. Noting such circumstance and predicaments, this literature review research paper aims to examine the modes applied by teachers in compiling teaching and learning materials, to investigate the role of multimodality implemented by teachers in BIPA learning, and to identify the impacts of multimodal teaching and learning materials on students. The results of the research suggest that teachers do have preference of a certain mode in teaching for a particular language competence. Furthermore, multimodal teaching and learning materials have been demonstrated to be able to effectively improve BIPA learning process, making it more attractive, and increase students’ learning interests despite the fact that multimodal teaching and learning materials are in dire need of more attention and have so much room for improvement


Multimodal; Language Teaching Materials; Indonesian Language For Foreign Speakers (BIPA); Pandemic Time

Full Text:



SMERU, “Learning from home: A portrait of teaching and learning inequalities in times of the Covid-19 pandemic.,” Jakarta, 2020. [Online]. Available:

A. Chik and P. Benson, “Commentary: Digital language and learning in the time of coronavirus,” Linguist. Educ., no. January, 2020, [Online]. Available:

A. Lie, S. M. Tamah, I. Gozali, K. R. Triwidayati, T. S. D. Utami, and F. Jemadi, “Secondary school language teachers’ online learning engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia,” J. Inf. Technol. Educ. Res., vol. 19, pp. 803–832, 2020.

Sunarti, C. Dini, D. Melania, and N. Izzah, “Tantangan Pembelajaran Online di Era Pandemi Covid-19,” in Seminar Nasional Pembelajaran Bahasa dan Satra (SELASAR) 4, 2020, no. 1, pp. 260–264.

W. R. Diani and L. S. Dewi, “Tantangan Guru BIPA Menghadapi Pembelajaran Daring,” Transformatika, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1–15, 2020, doi: 10.31002/transformatika.v.

Hastowahadi, R. W. Setyaningrum, and F. Pangesti, “Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh Darurat COVID-19 : Cerita Mahasiswa Internasional di Kelas Bahasa Indonesia untuk Penutur Asing ( BIPA ),” J. Int. Students, vol. 10, pp. 180–197, 2020, [Online]. Available:

C. Hasanudin, R. T. Supriyanto, and R. Pristiwati, “Elaborasi Model Pembelajaran Flipped Classroom dan Google Classroom sebagai Bentuk Self-Development Siswa Mengikuti Pembelajaran Bahasa Indonesia di Era Adaptasi Kebiasaan Baru (AKB),” J. Intelegensia, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 85–97, 2020.

I. Y. Rahmawati, S. Asiyah, and D. Mustikasari, “Aplikasi Klonosewandono sebagai Bahan Ajar BIPA pada Keterampilan Membaca Tingkat Dasar,” JDPP J. Dimens. Pendidik. dan Pembelajaran, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 118–124, 2020.

G. Susanto, “The Emotional Geography of International Students in Online Bahasa Indonesia Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic Geografi Emosi Mahasiswa Internasional dalam Belajar Bahasa Indonesia secara Daring pada Masa COVID-19,” vol. 10, pp. 161–179, 2020.

A. Ulfah, “Pemanfaatan media sosial sebagai media pembelajaran bahasa Indonesia di masa pandemi,” Pros. Semin. Nas. Bhs. dan Sastra …, no. 4, pp. 410–423, 2020.

H. Wijaya, “Kelas BIPA di Masa Corona: Yang Perlu/Tak Perlu Menjadi Fokus Pengajaran Daring,” in Prosiding Pertemuan Ilmiah Tahunan BIPA (PITABIPA) 5, 2020, pp. 33–41.

B. Tomlinson, “Materials development for language learning and teaching,” Lang. Teach., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 143–179, Apr. 2012, doi:

J. C. Richard and W. A. Renandya, “Approaches to teaching,” Methodol. Lang. Teach. An Anthol. Curr. Pract., pp. 1–5, 2002.

B. Tomlinson, “English language learning materials: A critical review,” 2008.

J. C. Richards, “The Role of Textbooks in a Language Program,” RELC Guidel., vol. 23, no. June, pp. 12–16, 2001.

M. Rahimi and M. Hassani, “Attitude towards efl textbooks as a predictor of attitude towards learning english as a foreign language,” Procedia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 31, no. 2011, pp. 66–72, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.12.018.

K. Graves and S. Xu, Designing language courses: A guide for teachers, no. 428 G7. Heinle & Heinle Boston, MA, 2000.

B. Tomlinson, “The Importance of Materials Development for Language Learning,” in Issues in Materials Development, M. Azarnoosh, M. Zeraatpishe, A. Faravani, and H. R. Kargozari, Eds. Sense Publishers, 2016.

M. Farías and L. Véliz, “Multimodal Texts in Chilean English Teaching Education : Experiences From Educators and Pre-Service Teachers,” Profile Issues Teach. Prof. Dev., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 13–27, 2019, doi: Multimodal.

L. Unsworth and E. Chan, “Bridging multimodal literacies and national,” Aust. J. Lang. Lit., vol. 32, pp. 245–257, 2009.

M. Walsh, “Reading visual and multimodal texts: how is ‘reading’different?,” in Proceedings of the ALEA/UNE 2004 Conference," Multiliteracies and English K-12 in the Age of Information and Communication Technologies 2004, 2004, no. May, pp. 25–27, [Online]. Available: multimodal texts.pdf.

N. Guichon and C. Cohen, “Multimodality and CALL To cite this version :,” in The Routledge Handbook of Language Learning and Technology, F. Farr and L. Murray, Eds. Routledge, 2016, pp. 509–521.

J. Callow, “The Shape of Text to Come: How Image and Text Work,” p. 130, 2013, [Online]. Available:

G. Kress, Multimodality: A social semiotic approach to contemporary communication. Taylor & Francis, 2010.

M. McDermott, “More than writing-to-learn,” Sci. Teach., vol. 77, no. 1, p. 32, 2010.

M. Siegel, “More than words: The generative power of transmediation for learning,” Can. J. Educ. Can. l’éducation, pp. 455–475, 1995.

J. Ranker, “Redesigning the everyday: Recognizing creativity in student writing and multimodal composing,” Lang. Arts, vol. 92, no. 5, p. 359, 2015.

J. McCormick, “Transmediation in the language arts classroom: Creating contexts for analysis and ambiguity,” J. Adolesc. Adult Lit., vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 579–587, 2011.

Ø. Gilje, “Multimodal redesign in filmmaking practices: An inquiry of young filmmakers’ deployment of semiotic tools in their filmmaking practice,” Writ. Commun., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 494–522, 2010.

A. M. Boshrabadi and R. Biria, “The efficacy of multimodal vs. print-based texts for teaching reading comprehension skills to Iranian high school third graders,” Int. J. Lang. Learn. Appl. Linguist. World, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 365–380, 2014.

V. Bagarić and J. M. Djigunović, “Defining communicative competence. Metodika, 8,(1), 94-103.” 2007.

D. Hymes, “On communicative competence,” sociolinguistics, vol. 269293, pp. 269–293, 1972.

M. Canale and M. Swain, “Theoretical bases of com-municative approaches to second language teaching and testing,” Appl. Linguist., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–47, 1980.

M. Canale, “From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy,” Lang. Commun., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–47, 1983.

M. Celce-Murcia, “Towards More Context and Discourse in Grammar Instruction.,” Tesl-Ej, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 1–6, 2007.

M. Celce-Murcia, “Rethinking the role of communicative competence in language teaching,” in Intercultural language use and language learning, Springer, 2007, pp. 41–57.

C. Hasanudin, A. Fitrianingsih, and K. Saddhono, “The use of wondershare filmora version 7.8. 9 media apps in flipped classroom teaching,” Rev. Comput. Eng. Stud., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 51–55, 2019.

C. Hasanudin, A. Fitrianingsih, and K. Saddhono, “How is the Student’s Negotiation Text in Collaborative Learning of Flipped Classroom and a CyberLink Power Director Media Apps.,” Ingénierie des Systèmes d’Information, vol. 24, no. 6, 2019.

M. Zed, Metode peneletian kepustakaan. Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2004.

M. W. George, The elements of library research: What every student needs to know. Princeton University Press, 2008.

C. Hodges, S. Moore, B. Lockee, T. Trust, and A. Bond, “The Difference Between Emergency Remote Teaching and Online Learning,” Educause Review, 2020. (accessed Mar. 18, 2021).

R. H. Huang, D. J. Liu, A. TLili, J. F. Yang, and H. H. Wang, Handbook on Facilitating Flexible Learning During Educational Disruption: The Chinese Experience in Maintaining Undisrupted Learning in COVID-19 Outbreak. Smart Learning Institute of Beijing Normal University, 2020.

D. Lederman, “Preparing for a fall without in-person classes,” Insid. High. Ed, 2020.

M. E. T. Osman, “Global impact of COVID-19 on education systems: the emergency remote teaching at Sultan Qaboos University,” J. Educ. Teach., vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 463–471, 2020, doi: 10.1080/02607476.2020.1802583.

A. Kusmiatun and U. K. Nisa, “e-Tandem: Alternatif Model Pembelajaran BIPA Tanpa Batas Ruang dan Jarak,” in Prosiding Pertemuan Ilmiah Tahunan BIPA (PITABIPA) 5, 2020, pp. 5–10.

H. Luvytasari, “Strategi Mengajarkan BIPA di Hanoi, Vietnam Periode Februari—Juli 2020 pada Saat Pandemi Korona,” in Prosiding Pertemuan Ilmiah Tahunan BIPA (PITABIPA) 5, 2020, pp. 25–32.

D. E. Sari and K. Ansari, “Pengembangan Bahan Ajar BIPA Bermuatan Budaya Sumatera Utara Berbantuan Media Audio Visual Bagi Tingkat Pemula,” Kode J. Bhs., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 138–147, 2021.

Triyanto and L. Septianasari, “Vlog sebagai Media Pembelajaran BIPA Alternatif untuk Pengenalan Budaya pada Masa Pandemi,” in Prosiding Pertemuan Ilmiah Tahunan BIPA (PITABIPA) 5, 2020, pp. 113–116.

I. Sobara, “Pembelajaran BIPA di RBI Berlin pada masa pandemi Covid-19: Peluang dan tantangan,” Semin. Nas. Pembelajaran Bhs. dan Sastra 4, pp. 120–130, 2020, [Online]. Available:

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 22 times
PDF - 5 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 English Language and Literature International Conference (ELLiC) Proceedings

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Electronic ISSN: 2579-7263
CD-ROM ISSN: 2579-7549

Published by

Jl. Kedungmundu Raya No.18 Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia
Phone: +622476740295, email: