Effectiveness of slow deep breathing exercise on decreasing stress levels for patients with diabetes mellitus

Warsono Warsono(1*)

(1) Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang
(*) Corresponding Author


The prevalence of diabetes mellitus patients increases in Semarang province every year. Whereas, it reached 120 numbers of patients in Kedungmundu public health center by 2020. One of the psychological problems encountered by patients with diabetes is a high risk of stress levels.  The condition of stress, anxiety, and fear influence the production of adrenaline hormones which aggravate the capability of patients to perform daily living activities. Slow deep breathing exercise is a nonpharmacologic method to reduce stress levels on diabetes mellitus patients.  This study aimed to investigate the effect of slow deep breathing exercises on decreasing stress levels for patients with diabetes mellitus. This study used a quasi-experiment pretest-posttest with a control group design was conducted at Kedungmundu public health center, Semarang. All of 32 samples were recruited in this study. Wilcoxon test analysis calculated a value of p=0.000 < ɑ 0,005. The statistical analysis found significantly different results between the pretest and posttest in the experimental group. Slow deep breathing exercise is effective to decrease the stress levels for patients with diabetes mellitus. Slow deep breathing exercise is strongly suggested for patients with diabetes mellitus as self-intervention to reduce stress levels.


Slow deep breathing; Diabetes Mellitus; Stress Level

Full Text:



Haq T, Ahmed T, Latif ZA, Sayeed MA, Ashrafuzzaman SM. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus having peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional study. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev. 2019;13(2):1523-1528. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2019.03.015

Schvarcz E, Palmer M, Aman J, Horowitz M, Stridsberg M, Berne C. Physiological hyperglycemia slows gastric emptying in normal subjects and patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Gastroenterology. 1997;113(1):60-66. doi:10.1016/S0016-5085(97)70080-5

Kesehatan K, Penelitian B, Kesehatan P. Hasil Utama Riskesdas 2018.; 2018.

Hegde S V., Adhikari P, Subbalakshmi NK, Nandini M, Rao GM, D’Souza V. Diaphragmatic breathing exercise as a therapeutic intervention for control of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2012;18(3):151-153. doi:10.1016/j.ctcp.2012.04.002

Fiskin G, Sahin NH. Effect of diaphragmatic breathing exercise on psychological parameters in gestational diabetes: A randomised controlled trial. Eur J Integr Med. 2018;23:50-56. doi:10.1016/j.eujim.2018.09.006

Chaddha A, Modaff D, Hooper-Lane C, Feldstein DA. Device and non-device-guided slow breathing to reduce blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement Ther Med. 2019;45:179-184. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2019.03.005

Noble KA. The stressed patient with diabetes mellitus. J Perianesthesia Nurs. 2005;20(5):354-360. doi:10.1016/j.jopan.2005.08.005

Rochmawati DH. Makna Kehidupan Klien Dengan Diabetes Melitus Kronis, Di Kelurahan Bandarharjo Semarang Sebuah Studi Fenomenologi.; 2013.

Noorratri ED. Peningkatan Kualitas Hidup Pasien Diabetes Mellitus Dengan Terapi Fisik. J Ilmu Keperawatan Komunitas. 2019;2(1):19. doi:10.32584/jikk.v2i1.301

Anissa M, Amelia R, Dewi NP. Gambaran Tingkat Depresi pada Lansia di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Guguak Kabupaten 50 Kota Payakumbuh. Heal Med J. 2019;1(2):12-16. doi:10.33854/heme.v1i2.235

PH L, Sari IP, Hermanto H. Gambaran Tingkat Stres Pasien Diabetes Mellitus. J Perawat Indones. 2018;2(1):41. doi:10.32584/jpi.v2i1.40

Brunetti L, Kalabalik J. Management of type-2 diabetes mellitus in adults: Focus on individualizing non-insulin therapies. P T. 2012;37(12):687-696.

Im HJ, Kim YJ, Kim HG, Kim HS, Son CG. Kouksundo, a traditional Korean mind-body practice, regulates oxidative stress profiles and stress hormones. Physiol Behav. 2015;141:9-16. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.12.049

Bhati P, Hussain ME. Sleep duration is a significant predictor of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Prim Care Diabetes. 2019;13(5):452-461. doi:10.1016/j.pcd.2019.02.002

Jones CU, Sangthong B, Pachirat O. An inspiratory load enhances the antihypertensive effects of home-based training with slow deep breathing: A randomised trial. J Physiother. 2010;56(3):179-186. doi:10.1016/S1836-9553(10)70023-0

Cant S, Watts P, Ruston A. The rise and fall of complementary medicine in National Health Service hospitals in England. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2012;18(3):135-139. doi:10.1016/j.ctcp.2012.05.004

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 274 times
PDF - 28 times

DOI: https://doi.org/10.26714/seanr.2.2.2020.10-14


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Warsono Warsono

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

View My Stats

University of Muhammadiyah Semarang

Kedungmundu Raya Street No. 18 Semarang, NRC Building University of Muhammadiyah Semarang

Phone: 02476740287
Fax: 02476740287
Email: sea.nursingresearch@unimus.ac.id