Homosexual Identity in Alex Sanchez's 'Rainbow Trilogy'

Nanda Vidyastria(1*)

(1) Universitas Negeri Surabaya
(*) Corresponding Author


This research aims at describing 1) stages of homosexual identity development in three main characters in the Rainbow Trilogy using Cass model, 2) factors influencing the development of homosexual identity using D Augellis theory, and 3) forms of victimization towards homosexuals experienced by the main characters using theories of D Augelli and Rivers. Queer studies was applied to describe and analyze the data in forms of words, phrases, sentences, statements, dialogues as well as monologues in the Rainbow Trilogy, recording thoughts and actions by the characters in accordance with the research focus. As a result, the research finds out that the three novels describe clearly all stages of Cass model of homosexual identity development in Jason and Kyle, including their identity confusions, comparisons, acceptances, tolerances, prides and syntheses. In Nelson, only one stage that can be identified as Nelson is described as one whose sexual identity has been formed. The research also reveals how factors of personal subjectivity and action, interactive intimacy and sociohistorical connection are connected to each others and also influencing the homosexual identity developments of the main characters. Besides, the research also shows that various kinds of victimization occur to Jason, Kyle and Nelson. Normative victimizations made to feel different are experienced by Nelson and Kyle. Family stressor and prejudices in connection to AIDS are experienced by the three characters. Victimization of direct attacks in forms of verbal and physical abuses are experienced by Kyle and Nelson. Lastly, the research finds out that Nelson is the only character experiencing sexual abuse. It occurs in form of undesired comments oriented to a sexual violence.


homosexual identity development; victimization

Full Text:



Aglipay, Fraylanie A. 2014. The Cass’ Theory of Sexual Identity Formation: A Study of the Complexities of Queer Identity Development. Psychology Research Vol. 4 No. 6 pp. 411-418.

American Psychological Association. 2016. Sexual Abuse. http:www.apa.org/topics/sexual-abuse/. Retrieved 02 February 2016

Bauer, Dominique. 2006. Homosexuality within the Context of Institutionalisation and Moral Sense. Journal of the European Ethics Network Vol. 13 No. 1 pp. 63-91.

Brendgen, M., Bukowski, W.M., Wanner, B., Vitaro, F., & Tremblay, R.E. 2007. Verbal Abuse by the Teacher During Childhood and Academic, Behavioral, and Emotional Adjustment in Young Adulthood. Journal of Educational Psychology Vol. 99 No. pp. 26-38.

Cass, VIvienne C. 1984. Homosexual Identity. Journal of Homosexuality Vol. 9 No. 2, pp. 105-126.

Cass, Vivienne C. 1979. Homosexual Identity Formation: A Theoretical Model. Journal of Homosexuality Vol. 4 No. 3 pp. 219-235.

Collier, K.L., Van, Beusekom G., Bos, HMW, & Sandfort, TGM. 2013. Sexual

Orientation and Gender Identity/Expression Related Peer Victimization in Adolescence: A Systematic Review of Associated Psychosocial and Health

Outcomes. Journal of Sex Research Vol. 50 No. pp. 299-317.

D'Augelli, Anthony R., & Patterson, Charlotte J. 2001. Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identities and Youth. New york: Oxford University Press.

Evans, Nancy J., Forney, Deanna S., Guido, Florence M., Patton, Lori D., & Renn, Kristen A. 2010. Student Development in College. USA: Jossey-Bass.

Gervacio, Jesenia. 2015. A Comparative Review of Cass’s and Fassinger’s Sexual Orientation Identity Development Models. The Vermont Connection Vol. 33 No. 7 pp. 51-59.

Grady, J. 2003. Stop Verbal Abuse. Houston: Therepia Publishing.

Milton, Henry L., & MacDonald, Gary J. 1984. Homosexual Identity Formation as a Developmental Process. Journal of Homosexuality Vol. 9 No. 2-3 pp. 91-104.

National Center on Elder Abuse. 2016. Types of Abuse. http://www.ncea.aoa.gov/FAQ/Type_Abuse/index.aspx#. Retrieved 02

February 2016

Radkowsky, M., & Siegel, L.J. 1997. The Gay Adolescent: Stressors, Adaptations, and Psychosocial Interventions. Clynical Psychology Review Vol. 17 No. pp. 191-216.

Rosario, M., Schrimshaw, E., Hunter, J., & Braun, L. 2006. Sexual Identity

Development among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths: Consistency and

Change over Time. Journal of Sex Research Vol. 43 No. 1 pp. 46-58.

Sanchez, Alex. 2001. Rainbow Boys. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Sanchez, Alex. 2003. Rainbow High. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Sanchez, Alex. 2005. Rainbow Road. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Smith, Ralph R. 2003. Queer Theory, Gay Movements, and Political Communication. Journal of Homosexuality Vol. 45 No. 2-4 pp. 345-348.

Tremble, B., Schneider, M., & Appathurai, C. 1989. Growing up Gay or Lesbian in a Multicultural Context. Journal of Homosexuality Vol. 17 No. 3 pp. 253-267.

Trickett, E. J., Watts, R. W., & Birman, D. 1994. Human Diversity: Perspectives on People in Context. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

White, Suzanne Degges, Rice, Barbara, & Myers, Jane E. 2000. Revisiting Cass' Theory of Sexual Identity Formation: A Study of Lesbian Development. Journal of Mental Health Counseling Vol. 22 No. 4 pp. 318-333.

World Health Organization. 2016. Sexual Violence. http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/global_campaign/en/chap6. pdf. Retrieved 02 February 2016.

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 449 times
PDF - 0 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Lensa: Kajian Kebahasaan, Kesusastraan, dan Budaya

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Lensa: Kajian Kebahasaan, Kesusastraan, dan Budaya is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0



Lensa: Kajian Kebahasaan, Kesusastraan, dan Budaya (Lensa)
p-ISSN: 2086-6100; e-ISSN: 2503-328X
Published by: Faculty of Foreign Language and Culture,Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang


Member of: