Linguistic Devices Reflecting Women's Inferiority in Tohari's 'Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk'

Chusni Hadiati(1*)

(1) Jenderal Soedirman University
(*) Corresponding Author


Inferiority is a state in which one part is lower than another. It is deliberately found in our society which consists of female and male because language choices reflect it. Utterances produced by female and male speaker carry both superiority and inferiority. In some speech communities, women’s language undoubtedly reflects their inferiority. Linguistics offers devices to support the above mentioned phenomena. Literary works provide data for linguistic investigation. A novel by Ahmad Tohari, Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk, shows a social praxis. Applying traditional setting, Tohari describes how women’s speech is portrayed. Rongggeng DukuhParuk is Tohari’s masterpiece which tells the life of a traditional dancer. The utterance produced by female characters indicates their lack of self-esteem. Using qualitative data analysis and contextual pragmatics, this article proves women’s inferiority through linguistic devices. Linguistic devices to show women’s inferiority as they are found in Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk are as follows; (1) question tag, (2) hedging, (3) pragmatic particle, (4) conversational implicature, and (5) metaphor.


inferiority, speech community, linguistic devices

Full Text:



Bellinger, D. and Gleason, Jean Berko. (1982). Sex differences in parental directives to young children. Journal of Sex Roles, 8: 1123-1139.

Coates, Jennifer. (1986). Women, Men and Language: A Sociolinguistic Account of Gender Differences in Language. London: Longman.

Creswell, John W. (1994). Research Design: Qualitative & Quantitative Approaches. London: SAGE Publications.

Eckert, Penelope and McConnell-Ginet, Sally. (2003). Language and Gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ely, Richards; Gleason, Jean Berko; Nnarasimhan, Bhuvaneswari; and McCabe, Alyssa. (1995). Family talk about talk: mothers leads the way. Discourse Processes, 9(2): 201-218.

Gleason, Jean Berko.; Perlmann, R.Y.; Ely D.; Evans, D. (1994). The baby talk register: parent’use of diminutives. In J.L. Sokolov and C.E. Snow. (eds). Handbook of Research in Language Developmen Using CHILDES.Hilsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp 50-76.

Grice, H. P. (1975). Logic and Conversation. In Cole, P., Morgan, J.L. (eds). Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts. New York: Academic, pp 41-58.

Gumperz, J. J. (1971). Language in Social Groups. Stanford: Standford University Press.

Halliday, M.A.K. danRuqaiyaHasan. (1989). Language, Context and Text: Aspect of Language in Social-Semiotic Perspective. Victoria: Deakin University.

Holmes, Janet. (1995). Women, Men and Politeness. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

Jaszczolt, K.M., (2002). Semantics and Pragmatics: Meaning in Language and Discourse. London: Longman.

Lakoff, Robin. (1975). Language and Women’s Place: Text and Commentaries. New York: Longman.

Labov, W. (1972).Sociolingusitc Patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Thomas, Jenny. (1996). Meaning in Interaction: An Introduction to Pragmatics. London: Longman.

Article Metrics

Abstract view : 356 times
pdf - 3 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Lensa: Kajian Kebahasaan, Kesusastraan, dan Budaya is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0



Lensa: Kajian Kebahasaan, Kesusastraan, dan Budaya (Lensa)
p-ISSN: 2086-6100; e-ISSN: 2503-328X
Published by: Faculty of Foreign Language and Culture,Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang


Member of: