Analysis Proximate, HCN , Antioxidant Compounds And Antioxidant Activities Of Potential Extract As Antiatherosclerosis

Edy Soesanto

Abstract


Bamboo shoots are plants that are very easy to find in Indonesia and can grow anywhere, economically bamboo shoots are very cheap and have been used by people in the world as foodstuffs since time immemorial. Aside from being a bamboo shoot food, it also has functions related to hypocholesterolemia, so it can be used as an alternative non-pharmacological treatment or as a traditional medicine derived from medicinal plants (Complementary Therapy). This study aims to determine the levels of protein, fat, water, ash, carbohydrates, HCN, phenols, flavonoids, vitamin E from bamboo shoots and their antioxidant activity. Bamboo shoots used include: yellow bamboo shoots, wulung, green, apus, and betung. Bamboo shoots are thinly sliced and dried in an oven of 80 0C for 24 hours and smoothed to get bamboo shoot powder and then extracted using 70% ethanol which will be analyzed for chemical compounds using the SNI 01-2891-1992 method for proximate test, HCN test using AOAC, while testing phenol, flavonoids, and vitamin E compounds using a spectrophotometer, testing antioxidant activity using DPPH method. The results of the proximate test analysis of 5 bamboo shoot extract samples showed that yellow bamboo shoots contained at most 0.632% fat, 4.474% water, 0.878 gr ash, 29.78% carbohydrates and 4.12 gr crude fiber. The highest protein content test of 0.41% was found in Apus bamboo shoots extract and the highest HCN content was also in Apus bamboo shoot extract 3.98 mg / 100gr. The highest content of Vitamin E is found in Apus bamboo shoots extract which is 0.3284%, the highest total flavonoid content is found in green bamboo shoots extract that is equal to 0.02778%, the most phenolic content in bamboo shoots extract is apus bamboo shoots extract of 4.4352% and the test results Apus bamboo antioxidant activity is more active as an antioxidant than other bamboo shoots which is 171.15 µg / mL with IC 50 value. This shows that Apus bamboo shoots extract is relatively safe for consumption and has good antioxidant potential and can be used as traditional medicine which comes from medicinal plants (Complementary Therapy)


Keywords


analisis senyawa kimia, aktivitas antioksida; rebung bambu; antiaterosklerosis

Full Text:

PDF

References


Akao Y, Seki N, Nakagawa Y, Yi H, Matusumoto K, Ito Y, Ito K, Funaoka M, Maruyama W, Naoi M, Nozawa Y, 2004. A highly bioactive lignophenol derivative from bamboo lignin exhibit a potent activity to suppress apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Bio and Med Chem 12:4791–801.

Alimuddin, 2007, Eliminasi asam sianida dengan perbusan pada rebung bambu, jurnal kimia mulawarman vol.4, nomor 2.

Araujo V, Arnal C, Boronat M, et al. 1998. Oxidant-anti oxidant imbalance in blood of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Bio Factor. 8:155-59.

Bagiada, A. 1995. Radikal Bebas dan Antioksidan. Jurnal Kedokteran Universitas Udayana 26(89). Penerbit Unud :9-136.

Barus.Pina.2009. Pemanfaatan bahan pengawet dan antioksidan alami pada industri bahan makanan, MIPA USU, Medan. :1-25

Brown.M.S,. and Goldstein,J.L.1983. Lipoprotein metabolism in the macrophage : Implications for cholesterol deposition in atherosclerosis. Annu. Rev. Biochem.52, :223 – 261.

Bruno RS, Leonard SW, Atkinson J, et al. 2006. Faster plasma vitamin E disappearance in smokers is normalized by vitamin C supplementation. Free Radic Biol Med. ;40(4):689-697.

Choudhury.D, Jatindra K. Sahu.J.K, and Sharma.G.D.2010. Biochemistry of Bitterness in Bamboo Shoots. Assam University Journal of Science & Technology : Physical Sciences and Technology. Vol. 6. Number II: 105-111

Daugherty Alan.1994. lipoprotein receptors in artenal tissue; relation to the pathology of atherosclerosis. Coronary Artew Discase. .5:211 – 215.

Fardiaz, S. 1989. Penuntun Praktek Mikrobiologi Pangan. Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine.2000. Vitamin E. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and carotenoids. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press :186-283.

Goldstein, J.L., and brown, M.S.1979. Low density lipoprotein pathways and its relation to atherosclerosis. Annu. Rev.Biochem.46 :897 – 930.

Groff JL1995. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism. 2nd ed. St Paul: West Publishing

Hanani E, Abdul M, Ryany S. 2005 Identifikasi Senyawa Antioksidan dalamSpons Callyspongia sp dari Kepulauan Seribu. Majalah Ilmu Kefarmasian2:127-133.

Harini M.S, Ervizal A.M.Z, Ellyn K.D.2008. Kamus Penyakit dan Tumbuhan Tanaman Obat Indonesia. Jakarta. Yayasan Obor.

Herbert V.1996. Prooxidant effects of antioxidant vitamins: Introduction. J Nutr ;126(Suppl.4):1197S-2008S

Hernawati. 2005. Peran berbagai sumber serat dalam dinamika kolesterol pada individu hiperkolesterolemia dan normokolesterolemia, Bandung (tidak dipublikasikan).

Hessler,J.R, Morel,D.W., lewis,L.J, and Chilsolm, G.M.1983. Lipoprotein oxidation and lipoprotein-induced cytotoxity. Arteriosclerosis 3 :215 – 222.

Horvath PJ. 1992. Vitamins as therapeutic agent. In: Smith CM, Reynard AM. Ed, Texbook of pharmacology. WB Saunders Company. Philadelphia; p1067-78.

Hu CH, Zhang Y, David DK.2000. Evaluation of antioxidant and prooxidant activities of bambooPhyllostachys nigra var. henonis leaf extract in vitro. J Agric Food Chem 48(8) 3170–6.

Jahari AB, Sumarno I. 2002. Epidemiologi Serat di Indonesia, Simposium Seminar hasil Monica III, Pusat Jantung Nasional Harapan Kita, Jakarta

Jiao.J, Zhang.Y, Lou. D, Wu. X, Zhang.Y. 2008. Antihyperlipidemic and antihypertensive effect of a triterpenoid-rich extract from bamboo shavings and vasodilator effect of friedelin on phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction in thoracic aortas of rats. Phytotherapy research : PTR (impact factor: 1.75). 01/ ; 21(12):1135-41

Kamaluddin, MT.1992. Farmakologi Obat Anti Hiperlipidemia. Available in: http://www.cermindunia kedokteran.com.

Kottke.B.A. Subbiah MTR. 1978. Pathogenesis of artherosclerosis. Mayo Clin Proc. .53:3548.

Kritchevsky, S. B.1999. β-Carotene, Carotenoids and the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease. Journal Of Nutrition 129: 5–8,

Kustiyah I, Prasetyo A. 2003. Pengaruh berbagai variasi dosis ekstrak morinda citrifolia terhadap kadar lipid serum dan perkembangan lesi aterosklerosis pada aorta abdominalis tikus Wistar. Media Medika Indonesia. ; 38 (4)

Lavoiser Al.1998. Chemical and physiological properties of vitamins. In: Combs GF,Ed. The vitamins. Fundamental aspects in nutrition and health. 2nd ed. London; Academic Press; p. 191-263.

Libby.P. and Aikawa.M.2002. Vitamin C, Collagen, and Cracks in the Plaque. Circulation 105:1396-1398

Li.D, Metha,J.L. 2005. Oxidized IDL, a critical factor in atherogenesis. Cardiovascular Research 68. 353 – 354.

Lu.B, Wu.X, Shi.J, Dong.Y, Zhang.Y.2006. Toxicology and safety of antioxidant of bamboo leaves. Part 2: developmental toxicity test in rats with antioxidant of bamboo leaves Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association (impact factor: 2.11). 11/ 44(10):1739-43.

Majid,A. 2008. Jantung koroner: patofisiologi, pencegahan dan pengobatan terkini ( Pidato pengukuhan guru besar ), Medan. Universitas Sumater Utara.

Maydani.M. 2001. Vitamin E and Atherosclerosis: Beyond Prevention of LDL Oxidation. J. Nutr. 131; 366S–368S,

Mayes PA, 1997. Sintesis, Pengangkutan dan Ekskresi Kolesterol, In: Murray RK, Granner. DK, Mayes PA, dan Rodwel VW, (Eds), Biokomia Harper, Ed. 24, Jakarta: EGC; .p. 277-89.

McCullough, F., et al.1999. The effect of vitamin A on epithelial integrity. Nutr Soc. volume 58: pages 289-293.

Montgomery R, Dryer RL, Conway TW, Spector AA.1983. Biokimia suatu Pendekatan Berorientasi Kasus. Jilid 2, Edisi 4, .Gajah Mada University.

Morel DW.d Corleto PE, Chisolm Gm. 1984. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells alter low density lipoprotein in vitro by free radical oxidation. Arteriosclerosis. .4: 357-364

Muhtadi,D., Palupi,N.S. dan Astawan,M. 1992. Metode Kimia Biokimia dan Biologi dalam Evaluasi Nilai Gizi Pangan Olahan. Bogor. PAU Pangan dan Gizi IPB

Nengah K.P.I, 2009. Efektifitas berbagai cara pemasakan terhadap penurunan kandungan asam sianida berbagai jenis rebung bambu, Agrotekno vol 15, nomor 2, agustus 2009-40

Nirmala Chongtham, Madho Singh Bisht, and Sheena Haorongbam 2011, Nutritional Properties of Bamboo Shoots: Potential and Prospects for Utilization as a Health Food. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. Vol.10, 153 – 169

Nursalam,2003. Konsep Penerapan metodologi Penelitian Ilmu Keperawatan, Pedoman Skripsi, Tesis, Instrumen Penelitian Keperawatan. Jakarta : Salemba Medika.

Olwin Nainggolan, Cornelis Adimunca 2005. Diet Sehat dengan Serat, Cermin Dunia Kedokteran No. 147, :43 - 46

Parekh.J and Chanda.S. 2007. In vitro antibacterial activity of the crude methanol extract of woodfordia fruticosa kurz flower (lythraceae).Brazillian.J. Microbial. ; 38 : 204 – 207.

Park.E.J, John.D.Y. 2009. Effect of bambooshoot consumption on lipid profiles and bowel function in healthy young women. Nut.J. Jul – Aug : 25 (7-8): 723 – 8.

Prangdimurti.E, Palupi.N.S, dan Zakaria.F.R 2007.Metode evaluasi nilai biologis karbohidrat dan lemak. Bogor Fateta IPB: 1 – 17.

Price.Sylvia.A, Wilson. Lorraine.M. 1995 .Patofisiologi konsep klinis proses-proses penyakit, edisi 4. Jakarta: Penerbit EGC; .p.529 – 555.

Proctor PH, Reynolds ES.1984. Free radicals and disease in man. Physiol Chem Phys Med.16; :175-95.

Putra I.N.K, 2009, Efektifitas berbagai cara pemasakan terhadap penurunan kandungan asam sianida berbagai jenis rebung bambu. Agrotekno vol 15, nomor 2, Agustus 2009-40.

Raharjo.Sri.2005. Oksidasi lipoprotein densitas rendah dan atrosklerosis. Agretech Vol.17.No.1 .: 26 – 32.

Rai, Surabhi.2007. Edible bamboo shoot-a review, Bulletin of arunachal forest research 23 (1&2): 39-44,

Rana, M., Khanam, J.A. dan Asad-Ud-Daula, M.2008. , Antineoplastic screening of some medicinal plants against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice, J. Med. Sci., 4 (2) :142-145.

Rosenfeld,M.E, Tsukada.T, Gown,A.M, and Ross,R. 1987. Fatty streak initiation in watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic and comparably hypercholesterolemic fat-fed rabbits, Arteriosclerosis I: 9 -23.

Sampurno. 2003.Pengaruh pemberian ekstrak allium sativa terhadap jumlah sel busa dan ketebalan dinding aorta abdominalis tikus Wistar. Tesis. Semarang.

Sargowo.D. 1997.Peran Radikal bebas dalam patogenesa Aterosklerosis, jurnal Kardiologi Indonesia / Vol. XXII No.3, Juli-September 1997: 168-182.

Semba RD. 1998 .The role of vitamin A and related retinoids in immune function. Nutr Rev. 56(1 Pt 2):S38-48.

Semba RD. 2001. Impact of vitamin A on immunity and infection in developing countries. In: Bendich A, Decklebaum RJ, eds. Preventive Nutrition: The Comprehensive Guide for Health Professionals. 2nd ed. Totowa: Humana Press Inc :329-346.

Silalahi, J. 2000. Hypocholesterolemic Factors in Foods: A Review. Indonesian Food and Nutrition Progress, 7: 26 - 35.

Soesanto, E. (2018). Compounds Antioxide of Extract Yellow and Green Bamboo Shoot. Media Keperawatan Indonesia, 1(1), 42-47. doi:https://doi.org/10.26714/mki.1.1.2018.42-47

Soesanto, E. 2010. Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan praktik pengendalian kesehatan pada lanjut usia Hipertensi di Wilayah kerja Puskesmas Mranggen, Demak , Tesis, UNDIP.

Spagnoli,L.G, Bonanno. E, Sangiorgi.G, and Mauriello.. 2007. A. Role of Inflammation in Atherosclerosis J Nucl Med 48:1800–1815

Stemme S. Hansson GK. 1994. Immune mechanisms in atherosclerosis. Coronary Artery disease.5: 216 – 222.

Stark, A., Madar, Z. Dietary fibre. In: Goldberg, I (ed). 1994. Functional Foods: Designer Foods, Pharmafoods, and Nutraceuticals. Chapman &Hall. New York : p. 183-201.

Suharto, I.2000. Pencegahan dan Penyembuhan Penyakit Jantung Koroner. Jakarta : Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Suhartono, E., Fujiati, Aflanie, I. (2002). Oxygen toxicity by radiation and effect of glutamic piruvat transamine (GPT) activity rat plasma after vitamine C treatmen, Diajukan pada Internatinal seminar on Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, Yogyakarta.

Sukandar.E. 2006. Stres oksidatif sebagai faktor resiko penyakit kardiovaskuler pada penyakit ginjal kronis tahap 1 sampai 4. Majalah Farmacia Edisi Agustus : 64

Traber MG. 1999. Utilization of vitamin E. Biofactors ;10(2-3):115-120.

Traber MG. 2001. Does vitamin E decrease heart attack risk? summary and implications with respect to dietary recommendations. J Nutr ;131(2):395S-397S.

Traber MG. 2006. Vitamin E. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkiins; 396-411.

Trilling JS, Jaber R,1996. Selections from current literature: the role of free radicals and antioxidants in disease. Fam Pract;13(3):322-6.

Winarno, 1992. Rebung (Teknologi Produksi dan Pengolahan), Jakarta: Pusaka Sinar Harapan.

Winarno, F. G. 1993. Pangan, Gizi, Teknologi dan Konsumen. PT Gramedia. Jakarta.

Wiryowidagdo, S & Sitanggang, M.2002. Tanaman Obat Untuk Penyakit Jantung, Darah Tinggi dan Kolesterol. Jakarta : Agromedia Pustaka.

Zhang.Y, Tie. X, Bao.B, Wu.X, Zhang.Y.2007. .Metabolism of flavone C-glucosides and p-coumaric acid from antioxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) in rats.The British journal of nutrition (impact factor: 3.45). 04/2007; 97(3):484-94.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.26714/mki.1.3.2018.32-45

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2018 Media Keperawatan Indonesia



View My Stats 

University of Muhammadiyah Semarang

Jl. Kedungmundu Raya No. 18 Semarang Gedung NRC University of Muhammadiyah Semarang

Phone: 02476740287
Fax: 02476740287
Email: mki@unimus.ac.id

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.